Cyber is a game of finding the holes and patching them, pun intended. However, there are hard targets and soft targets.
Systems can be attacked with technology and also by duping or attacking the humans that operate them or have access to them.
Looking at the graphic, which is just an overview, we have to balance and defend against those hard and soft attacks. System attacks tend to be either noisy and full on overwhelming massive attacks or sly and stealthy hiding in the shadows. Both require different approaches. Most technology solutions attempt to cover those areas though there are multiple facets and vectors to protect against. If you're still thinking detection, think again, detection occurs after a breach. Protection is still job one.
Humans are used to subvert defenses and figuratively or literally have an employee walk the threat in. Whether it's a malicious download, phishing Email, removable media, or even tricks to do credential theft or harvesting the goal is to gain access past the defenses. It's easier to attack from within or behind the perimeter to elude detection.
This means there is no single solution. There most certainly is not a single technology solution. It's all hands on deck with red alert and shields up. Don't leave this on just the CISO's shoulder, they will fail and then the company will fail.